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The Indian Borders (Kingdoms of our sentinels)

A background.
India has a total of 15,106.70 Kms. of land border running through 92 districts in 17 States and a coastline of 7,516.60 Kms. touching 13 States and Union Territories (UTs).
India also has a total of 1,197 islands accounting for 2,094 Kms. of additional coastline.
All Indian states in the country, barring Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Delhi and Haryana , have one or more international borders or a coastline; and thus can be regarded as frontline States.
Size/Stretch of our borders.
The length of India’s land borders with neighboring countries is as under:
Name of the country Length of the border
Bangladesh 4,096.70 Kms
China 3,488 Kms
Pakistan 3,323 Kms
Nepal 1,751 Kms
Myanmar 1,643 Kms
Bhutan 699 Kms
Afghanistan 106 Kms
These borders comprise a vast variety of terrain encompassing deserts, plains, hills, mountains, high altitude and riverine areas.
Many of borders are very porous due to the terrain and ethnic affinities of population on both sides of the borders.
Illegal migration, infiltration of anti-national elements, smuggling of arms/explosives and drug trafficking are some of the pressing problems. All this underscores the need for utmost vigilance on the borders carried out by the Border Guarding Forces.
Every Indian border has its unique set of problems. There are 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (area involved 7,110.02 acres) in India and 111 Indian enclaves (area involved 17,158.13 acres) in Bangladesh.
Illegal migrations and alleged activities of self-exiled Indian insurgent groups from Bangladeshi soil are the most pressing impediments to peace on the Bangladesh stretch.
On the much maligned Pakistan stretch, India continues to face internal threats from insurgencies fanned by “ethnic and tribal chauvinists” who desire to achieve autonomy through left-wing radicalism and extremism.
Main Border Contact Points.
1. Pakistan Stretch.
* Wagah – Made famous in numerous Bollywood movies and the contact entry point for the Buses and Train routes.
* Hussainiwala, Ferozepur – Made famous by the annual fair held at a Muslim Fakir’s grave that sees pilgrims from both sides making a beeline to pay their respects.
* Aman Setu – the much revered, and embattled bridge in Kashmir.
* Siachen, famous as the worlds highest battleground.
2. China Stretch
* Nathu La pass – a part of the Silk Route, recorded history by Huen Tsang.
3. Bangladesh Stretch.
* Salbagar-Akhaura
* Karimganj-Suthargadi
* Petrapole
* Dauki
4. Nepal Stretch
* Sanauli, Gorakhpur district, made famous by Dev Anand, in Hare Rama Hare Krishna.
* Naxalbari on the Indian side and Dulabari in Nepal
5. Afghanistan stretch
6. Bhutan stretch
* Transit from Darang Area
7. Myanmar stretch.
* Made famous as the last route taken by Bahadur Shah Zafar.
Border – Simplified.
1. LoC
* Line of Control – Pakistan
2. LAC
* Line of Actual Control – CHINA

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